Common Conditions Treated

Cerebral Palsy/Brain Injury

Cerebral Palsy is a neurological disorder caused as a result of an injury to the developing brain while the baby is in utero, during birth or up to the first 18 months of life. It primarily affects body movement and muscle coordination. The type of movement dysfunction, the part of the body affected and the extent of the impairment will vary from individual to individual. The effects can include problems with movement, muscle control, muscle coordination, muscle tone, reflexes, balance and posture. Physiotherapy is essential to maximise strength, coordination and normal developmental movement patterns. The main aim of physiotherapy is to help the child with CP be as mobile and independent as possible.

Spina Bifida

Spina Bifida occurs when there is incomplete development of the spinal cord in the womb. Translated it literally means ‘split spine’. The vertebrae are bones which protect the spinal cord. With Spina Bifida some of these bones are not fully formed and are split allowing. 

Spina Bifida most often affects the muscles of the legs, although depending on the location of the lesion, other functions may also be affected. Physiotherapy helps the child develop the muscle strength of their legs, improve their mobility and ultimately maximise the child’s independence.

Hypermobility & Connective Tissue Spectrum Disorders

Joint Hypermobility syndrome is a term used to describe overly mobile joints which occurs as a result of the protein collagen being more flexible than usual. Hypermobility varies on a spectrum of different severities, some with more serious complications such as Ehlers Danlos Syndrome and Marfan’s syndrome. The other end of the spectrum has milder consequences such as benign hypermobility joint syndrome (BHJS). Physiotherapy here is essential not only to address any injuries which may occur due to these overly-mobile joints, but also to strengthen specific joints to prevent future injury.


Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS ) is described by a patient’s intolerance to the change of body position from supine to an upright position – it is characterised by a dramatic and excessive increase in heart rate. POTS is theorised to be due to an autonomic dysregulation regulating blood flow and more specifically its’ responsibility to control cerebral blood flow. POTS be classified as primary or idiopathic with no known cause, or secondary which arises from a known disease or disorder such as Hypermobility Syndrome.

Physiotherapy for POTS focuses on improving the client’s understanding of respiratory control and normal breathing pattern, as well as the mind—body link and how external factors such as anxiety, stress and lifestyle influences breathing patterns resulting in breathlessness.

Breathing re-training includes:

  • breath control at rest and on activity, 
  • controlled pause technique, and the 
  • box-breathing technique 
  • Incorporating these breathing techniques into gentle movement and exercise routines, such as yoga and pilates

Plagiocephaly & Torticollis

This is a condition where the muscles on one side of the baby’s neck are restricted and so the baby holds their head tilted to one side and has difficulty turning their neck. If diagnosed and treated with physiotherapy before the age of one, there is usually complete resolution of this condition.

Talipes (Clubfoot)

This is a condition noted at birth, where one or both feet are turned inwards. This condition is managed initially by an orthopaedic doctor, where casts are applied to the feet to gradually stretch them outwards. However, intensive physiotherapy following their removal ensures that your child has the confidence and muscular ability to develop normal walking and running patterns with full strength in their feet.

Flat Feet & In-Toeing

Pes planus/ pes planovalgus (or flat foot) is the loss of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot, heel valgus deformity, and medial talar prominence. This is often observed with the medial arch of the foot coming closer (than typically expected) to the ground or making contact with the ground.

All typically developing infants are born with flexible flat feet, with arch development first seen around 3 years of age and then often only attaining adult values in arch height between 7 and 10 years of age.

There is a large variation within the typical developing childhood population and it is important to identify cases where the medial arch is not developing naturally. In these cases, we can prescribe an exercise programme, in-soles and supportive footwear, with supportive taping recommended in more severe cases.

In-toeing means that when a child walks or runs the feet turn inwards instead of pointing straight ahead. This is caused by poor rotational alignment of the thighs, knees and/or feet. It can be caused by abnormal bone growth, weakness, hypermobility or poor coordination and can be associated with frequent tripping or clumsiness during physical activities.

We tend to prescribe an exercise programme and corrective taping for more severe cases, and also give advice about appropriate footwear. Light and flexible footwear tends to help, as opposed to insoles and supportive footwear which may have the effect of increasing the problem. 

Growing Pains & Childhood Repetitive Strain

Many children experience regular pain in their feet, legs, back and upper limbs, and this is commonly caused by postural imbalances from earlier in childhood. Growing pains can often be the first manifestation of this postural imbalance, with over-used areas such as the muscle at the back of the knee (hamstrings and calf muscle) gathering strain throughout daily physical activities which then causes soreness at night-time. This can resolve naturally or can persist and deteriorate depending on many factors such as biomechanical alignment, physical fitness, physical activity levels, rest and recovery, etc.

We provide comprehensive physical assessments and prescribe detailed treatment and management plans, including physiotherapy, manual therapy, home exercise programmes, personal training, orthotics, taping, etc.

Juvenile Arthritis

Juvenile arthritis is a general term that describes all types of auto-immune and inflammatory arthritis diagnosed in someone under the age of 16 years. The effects of juvenile arthritis can significantly impact on a child’s life and functional abilities. Painful, stiff joints can lead to inactivity and muscle weakness which if left untreated can impair a child’s ability and potential for recovery. Physiotherapy aims to reduce pain, swelling and stiffness, and improve range of movement, function, mobility and ultimately independence.

MusculoSkeletal Injuries

Osgood Schlatter’s Disease, Perthes Disease, Sever’s Disease, and post-fracture rehabilitation.